What is sugar (also known as table sugar or sucrose)?
Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose (table sugar or sugar) is obtained from sugar cane or sugar beets.
What is High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)?
HFCS is an nearly 1:1 mix of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The most widely used varieties of HFCS are: HFCS 55 (mostly used in soft drinks), approximately 55% fructose and 42% glucose. So they contain slightly more fructose than glucose.
The only difference between simple table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS is that with sucrose the monosaccharides are covalently linked whereas with HFCS the glucose and fructose are monosaccharides (single sugars).
When your body ingests sucrose, the covalent bonds between the fructose and glucose are hydrolyzed (or “broken”) allowing your body to metabolize the individual monosaccharides (fructose and glucose).
Both fructose and glucose from either a HFCS source or from sucrose are processed identically by the human body.